Symposium| Old & New Challenges in the Arab Countries of the Gulf & the Levant
The third and final panel titled “The Choice of the Past and the Challenges of the Future: Pan-Arab, Pan-Islamic, or simply Global?” was chaired by Prof. Edmund Herzig (Oriental Institute and Wadham College, Oxford). The first panellist was Dr. Abdel RazzakTakriti (Sheffield University) who discussed various historical periods that were important to the question of cooperation and regional thought. The second panellist was Dr. Hassan Turune (School of Area studies) who addressed the issue of external powers and their role in the region through the example of Turkey’s transformation throughout the past decades. Three discussants responded including HavalRaouf (Iraq), Safa Mahdi Ubeid al Algqi (Iraq), and AfifTabsh (Lebanon).